The monarchy is restored. Religious differences continue to simmer under the surface and a constitutional crisis is provoked when James II declares himself a Catholic and produces a son. The Dutch Protestant husband of Mary, James' eldest daughter by his first wife, is invited to becomes joint monarch with his wife. The reorganisation of government is known as the Glorious Revolution.
On the death of Oliver Cromwell, the polity of England behaved like a headless chicken. Cromwell nominated his son Richard to be his successor as Lord Protector, but Richard was incapable of controlling the wave of civil and military unrest which was set off as various interests struggled for influence and power. He resigned in 1659 and went to live in obscurity. General John Lambert, acting on behalf of the army high command, invited the Rump Parliament, which now consisted of only 78 members, to return. When Parliament attempted to take control of the army in October, the generals set up a Committee of Safety.
Powerful elements, led by George Monck, were beginning to consider the restoration of Charles Stuart to the throne of England as the best means of avoiding further turmoil.
1660 Declaration of Breda. Charles II agrees liberty of conscience and payment of army back-pay.
~ The Convention Parliament votes for restoration of the monarchy.
~ Charles II returns to London and becomes king of the three kingdoms.
~ 26 surviving regicides are hanged in Whitehall.
~ The Navigation Acts continue and expand the policies of the 1651 Act, designed to restrict trade between English territories to English ships, and also list commodities such as sugar, cotton and tobacco which may only be shipped to England or one of her provinces.
~ Theatres and playhouses are allowed to re-open in England.
~ Foundation of the Royal Society for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge.
~ James Duke of York (1633-1701) marries his mistress Anne Hyde (1637-1671) daughter of Edward Hyde Lord Clarendon (1609-1674) the chief minister.