The religious reformation of England is enhanced then disputed in two short reigns before Elizabeth I becomes queen and her rival the Queen of Scots is eventually executed. Rivalry with Catholic Spain strengthens English naval power and makes Elizabeth the leading Protestant sovereign in Europe.
Before he died, Henry VIII ensured Queen Catharine Parr was well-provided for, but, rather than remain a royal widow, Catherine agreed to marry Thomas Seymour, within weeks of Henry’s death. Thomas was brother of the late king’s third wife Jane Seymour. He was therefore the uncle of Henry’s successor, the boy king Edward VI. His brother, Edward Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector during their nephew’s minority. Catherine and Thomas married in secret, to the displeasure of the king and his sister the Princess Mary. However, the Princess Elizabeth remained on friendly terms with her.
Catherine became pregnant, at the age of 35, for the first time in her four marriages. Apparently, her husband began to pay unseemly attention to the fourteen year old Princess Elizabeth, who was in Catherine’s care, and it was deemed necessary to send her off to another household.
1547 Henry VIII dies to be succeeded by his nine year old son Edward VI who suffers poor health. His short reign is remembered for the Protestant faith becoming firmly established in the English Church.
~ Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and brother of the late Queen Jane, is appointed Lord Protector. He beats the Scots at the battle of Pinkie when the Scots repudiate the Royal marriage treaty.
~ John Knox (c1514-1572) becomes the Protestant chaplain at St Andrews. The French intervene and put down a Protestant revolt in Scotland.
~ The Act of Six Articles (see1539) is repealed.