1. Ireland

Although it is part of the British Isles, Ireland developed its own distinctive culture, which became apparent in the Celtic Church missions which competed with the Roman Church to convert the Anglo-Saxon pagans. Ireland was gradually drawn closer to the British orbit during the Viking age. Even then, it remained separate and different from its British neighbours, especially after the Norman Conquest of England. However, as the Popes set about controlling deviant versions of the Christian faith and Norman lords cast around for new land to conquer, Ireland’s separation from European interference was doomed.

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