Relationships between the British nations is tested and defined. Royal possessions in France are disputed during the reigns of the last four Plantagenet kings and the Black Death strains the social fabric.
Edward I arrived home from crusade twenty one months after his father died. He was very tall and well-built, hence the nickname ‘Longshanks’ by which he became known. A seasoned and valiant warrior aged 35, he had outlived his early reputation for intolerance, arrogance and vengeful treatment of opponents. He possessed the feared Plantagenet temper but was now acknowledged as a capable leader with a proven ability in statecraft. The English nobles who attended the coronation of Edward I were full of hope that he would bring order and certainty to the realm after the weakness and disorder of the previous reign.
1274 Edward I is crowned at Westminster on his return to England.
~ Gilbert de Clare (1243-1295) extinguishes Welsh rule from Glamorgan.