8. Egypt and North East Africa

Egypt retained much of the geo-politico form it assumed thousands of years ago during the times of the pharaohs. It became a province of the Roman Empire before falling to the Muslim conquests. It eventually became a member of the Ottoman Empire under semi-autonomous Mamluk rule into the nineteenth century. Britain took a closer interest in the country once the Suez Canal established a short route to the East and the Indian Raj.

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